Aptamer technology for tracking cells’ status & function
© Wiraja et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 15 August 2014
Accepted: 16 October 2014
Published: 27 October 2014
In fields such as cancer biology and regenerative medicine, obtaining information regarding cell bio-distribution, tropism, status, and other cellular functions are highly desired. Understanding cancer behaviors including metastasis is important for developing effective cancer treatments, while assessing the fate of therapeutic cells following implantation is critical to validate the efficacy and efficiency of the therapy. For visualization purposes with medical imaging modalities (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging), cells can be labeled with contrast agents (e.g. iron-oxide nanoparticles), which allows their identification from the surrounding environment. Despite the success of revealing cell biodistribution in vivo, most of the existing agents do not provide information about the status and functions of cells following transplantation. The emergence of aptamers, single-stranded RNA or DNA oligonucleotides of 15 to 60 bases in length, is a promising solution to address this need. When aptamers bind specifically to their cognate molecules, they undergo conformational changes which can be transduced into a change of imaging contrast (e.g. optical, magnetic resonance). Thus by monitoring this signal change, researchers can obtain information about the expression of the target molecules (e.g. mRNA, surface markers, cell metabolites), which offer clues regarding cell status/function in a non-invasive manner. In this review, we summarize recent efforts to utilize aptamers as biosensors for monitoring the status and function of transplanted cells. We focus on cancer cell tracking for cancer study, stem cell tracking for regenerative medicine, and immune cell (e.g. dendritic cells) tracking for immune therapy.
Introduction to cell tracking
Over the past decade, the field of cell tracking, which includes monitoring cellular location, function and behavior in real time through various imaging modalities, has experienced rapid progression. The successful clinical translation of therapeutics have motivated researchers to seek a comprehensive understanding of the in vivo fate of transplanted cells [1, 2]. For instance, tracking cancer cells in their native environment can yield data on their biodistribution, tropism, status and functions (e.g. metastasis), which can significantly impact the success of cancer therapy [3–5]. Meanwhile, revealing the fate and functions of therapeutic cells following their implantation can help optimize the procedure of cellular therapy (e.g. dosage, injection frequency, and administration protocol) .
In both preclinical and clinical studies, cells can be monitored and tracked through imaging modalities such as: optical imaging, positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Typically, cells of interest are labeled with contrast agents that provide detectable signals to distinguish them from bystander cells. For example in optical imaging, fluorescent/bioluminescent molecules and nanoparticles are used as contrast agents [7, 8]. On the other hand, PET/SPECT employs radio-isotope labeling agents such as 18F-FDG [9, 10]. Agents with high X-ray absoption properties (e.g. Omnipaque) meanwhile, are used to label cells for X-ray imaging and CT . Lastly, MRI utilizes gadolinium or iron oxide nanoparticles to modify the magnetic relaxation time of the selected tissue [12, 13]. Although these contrast agents have greatly assisted researchers to visualize the shape, morphology and motion of cells, tissues, and organs, few have the ability to specifically reveal the status and function of cells at a high spatiotemporal resolution. In addition, they generally suffer from significant uptake and transfer to non-target cells [14–16].
Ideally, contrast agents for cell tracking should efficiently label cells of interest, persist within the cells for a period of time with minimal transfer to bystanders, and provide a detectable change in signal to reflect changes in cell status and/or function.
Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA oligonucleotides usually 15 to 60 bases in length that can bind specifically to target molecules. Typically, aptamers can be generated from a selection process termed as SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) [17, 18]. In SELEX, an initial library consisting of >1013 random oligonucleotides is enriched by an iterative elimination and PCR process to selectively amplify sequences possessing high affinity to the pre-determined target.
While the application of SELEX for whole-cells target (cell-SELEX) is relatively new, it has progressed rapidly over the past decade. In comparison to other targeting ligands such as antibodies, aptamers exhibit several advantages. Firstly, the synthesis of aptamer is an entirely chemical process that can be scaled up with consistency and used to incorporate a diverse range of functional moieties [26–28]. In addition when compared to antibodies, aptamer probes are low in immunogenicity and considerably stable in a wide range of pH (4–9), temperature, and organic solvents [29–31]. Furthermore, the molecular-level resolution of aptamers can be utilized to transduce signal changes related to cellular status. By employing aptamers targeted at a specific cell surface marker for example, the up/down-regulation of that particular marker can be monitored, as a mean to evaluate cellular functionality [32–34]. As will be elaborated later, this approach has been successfully utilized to evaluate embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation processes . Meanwhile, the high specificity and low dissociation constant (Kd) (in the range of nano to pico-molar) of aptamers help to minimize the risk of agent transfer to non-target cells . Taken together, these properties make aptamers an excellent tool to accomplish ideal cell tracking (i.e. complete monitoring of cellular biodistribution, status and functions), for both diseased cells (e.g. cancer cells) and therapeutic cells (immune cells & stem cells).
Lastly, it is also noteworthy that cell-SELEX (Figure 1B) does not require prior knowledge regarding the surface signature of the target cells. Instead, the selection of aptamers involves repetitive elimination of sequences that bind to non-target cells [37–39]. For example to screen aptamers for targeting human T cell lymphoblast-like cell line CCRF-CEM cells, a sequence library was continuously enriched for sequences that bind to CCRF-CEM cells but not Ramos cells. The library enrichment was quantitatively evaluated over the different cycles of incubation and selection steps by monitoring the fluorescence of CCRF-CEM cells through flow cytometry .
Aptamers for cell tracking
Aptamers for tracking cancer cells
Efforts using aptamer-based cancer cell tracking can be grouped under the different imaging modalities, including optical, PET/SPECT, X-ray/CT, and MRI.
Optical imaging is perhaps the most common means of aptamer tracking. Its distinctive properties such as easy accessibility, low instrumentation cost, high resolution (allowing visualization of single cells) and good spatiotemporal sensitivity, promote utilization in many tracking applications. Furthermore, the recent advancements of multi-photon and intra-vital microscopy and optical probes in the near-infrared region (NIR) (700-900 nm) have permitted in vivo optical imaging on small animals or for near-surface observation [51–53].
Simultaneous detection of various cancer cell types is another useful application of aptamer biosensors. This was achieved previously through optical means in vitro, by labeling the different cancer cells with distinct aptamer-conjugated fluorescent NPs. Kang et al. conjugated three aptamers: AS1411 (targeting nucleolin), TTA1 (for tenascin-C), and MUC-1 (for mucin) with three QDs of distinct emission (605, 655, and 705 nm) to identify five cancer cell types based on the differential expression of their respective biomarkers . Meanwhile, Chen et al. were able to simultaneously detect Ramos, CEM and Toledo cancer cells from a cell mixture, by applying three FRET NPs modified with distinct aptamer (TD05, Sgc8, and T1, respectively) .
As for PET/SPECT monitoring, aptamer conjugation has been used to enable control over the biodistribution of radio-isotope tracers. Previously, aptamers generated against activated neutrophil elastase NX21909 were labeled with 99mTc, to monitor inflammatory events in a rat . In a similar manner, an aptamer against tenascin-c (TTA1) was labeled with Rhodamine red and 99mTc to track glioblastoma (U251) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-436) cells. Following intravenous injection, the aptamer sensors showed rapid accumulation at tumor site within 10 minutes and diffused throughout 3 hours after. The rapid tumor uptake, in conjunction with rapid renal/hepatic clearance, resulted in a high tumor to blood signal ratio (~50 in 3 hours) . Pieve et al. also explored the potential usage of antiMUC1-aptamers as a radiolabelling agent for breast cancer. Selected aptamers which were conjugated with MAG2 ligand and labeled with 99mTc, demonstrated great accumulation at the tumor site of MCF-7 tumor-bearing mice . More recently, conjugation of the A10-3 RNA aptamer with 64Cu through several chelators was shown in vitro not to compromise A10-3 specificity towards PSMA positive tumor, therefore being another promising candidate for aptamer radiolabeling .
For cell tracking via X-ray/CT, findings that AuNP has greater X-ray absorption compared to iodine-based contrast agents with less tissue interference and cytotoxic effects have encouraged aptamer-AuNP probe utilization [62, 63]. Kim et al. developed a bifunctional aptamer AuNP probe for combined prostate cancer imaging and treatment. Particularly, the A9 aptamer was extended to allow conjugation of a Dox loaded-21-nt (GCA)7 linker, with thiol modification for subsequent AuNP attachment. The NPs increased CT intensity by 4 folds in PSMA positive LNCaP cells when compared to control PC3 cells, indicating a promising selective CT contrast agent . This report showcases the potential of achieving an integrative aptamer probe to promote drug localization as well.
Similarly, magnetic NP-aptamer conjugates are promising candidates in MRI. For example, Ko et al. conjugated nucleolin aptamer AS1411 to gallium-67 attached magnetic fluorescent cobalt-ferrite NPs. After intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, the NPs showed accumulation at tumor site, observable by both scintigraphy and T2-weighted MR. The incorporation of the AS1411 aptamer led to a strong radionuclide signal with increased T2 signal at the tumor region. In contrast, mutant aptamer AS1411mt (with substituted G core nucleotides) was ejected rapidly from the bloodstream with no accumulation at tumor sites, demonstrating the usefulness of specific binding moieties in tumor detection . In other studies of MRI-based cancer cell tracking, aptamers have been conjugated with superparamanetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) to modify the magnetic relaxation time of the specific cancer cells. Wang et al. showed that anti-PSMA A10 aptamer conjugated-SPION significantly decreased both relaxation times (T1 & T2) of target LNCaP cells, as compared to control PC3 cells . Jalalian et al. also showed great enhancement of T1 weighted MR signal in C26 tumor area, when 5TR1 aptamer targeting Mucin 1 SPION complex was used for simultaneous imaging and Epirubicin drug delivery .
Aside from the examples mentioned above, there exist more aptamers targeting upregulated receptors on cancer cells, although their utilization for in vivo cell tracking is still limited. These include the GS24, J18, AIR-3A and Sgc8 aptamers, which are respectively targeted to well-known receptors namely transferin receptor (TfR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), and tyrosine kinase receptor 7 (PTK 7) [66–69]. Given that these receptors are closely related to the progression of various cancers (e.g. ovarian, hepatocellular carcinoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) [70–72]), further application of these aptamers as cancer tracking probes in vivo should be very exciting. Not only do aptamer probes reveal the tumor location and status, they can also help to hinder tumor growth when utilized in conjunction with therapeutics for effective drug delivery [71, 72].
Aptamers for tracking stem cells
Besides their applications for cancer cells, aptamers have also been explored in the stem cell field, particularly because of the increasingly important role of stem cells in regenerative medicine. To date, stem cells have been incorporated in vivo for both tissue engineering and cell therapy purposes. Seeded on scaffolds, these stem cells can be expanded in vitro to achieve functional tissues for later implantation [73–75]. Additionally, these stem cells (without biomaterials) can be solely injected as cell therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in particular are achieving acclaim for their immunomodulatory properties. Aside from being multi-potent stem cells which can differentiate to several cell types, MSCs can either promote or suppress the inflammatory response [76, 77]. Consequently, they can escape allogeneic rejection, and have been applied to promote wound-healing or in conjunction with graft placement to suppress the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [78, 79]. In addition, some have even reported their role in suppressing cancer cell growth [80, 81].
One usage of aptamers for stem cell applications is to assist their isolation from the body. Noting that stem cells exist in such a small fraction (e.g. MSC exists approximately in a ratio of 1:100,000 to bone marrow cells in teenagers) , a highly specific and sensitive aptamer recognition platform is useful to generate a homogenous pool of stem cells. Guo et al. managed to isolate adult mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) from the bone marrow cell mixture utilizing both aptamer-assisted magnetic sorting and aptamer-assisted fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Due to the lack of specific surface markers of aMSCs, they initially utilized cell-SELEX to isolate aptamers with high binding affinity compared to peripheral blood cells. One aptamer sequence, G8 was chosen for further studies. For the magnetic column fishing experiment, biotinalyted G8 was used to specifically label aMSCs with streptavidin-coated magnetic Dynabeads®. Similarly, the G8 aptamer was fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled to enable FACS. This aptamer-enabled separation method resulted in isolation of aMSCs with correct marker staining showing CD29+, CD44+, CD45-, CD90+, SLA class I+, SLA DQ-, and SLA DR-. Subsequently, they applied their apt-magnetic beads labeling for in vivo aMSCs tracking. 20 hours post-injection, the labeled cells were observed with MRI to disperse throughout the myocardium layers, in accordance with the presumed vascular distribution area. Moreover, histological examination of the biopsies confirmed the presence of labeled aMSCs at the identified area .
Aptamer labeling can alternatively be applied to monitor the differentiation process of stem cells, as shown by Iwagawa et al. . Their selected aptamers (L1-65, L2-2 and L3-3) showed specific binding affinity to mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), with low affinity towards differentiated cell lines. During the course of retinoic acid (RA) differentiation, multiple injections of the aptamer showed declining cell affinity with progressive decrease of fluorescent signal. Applying the same principle, stem cells can potentially be incubated and tagged with similar aptamer probes prior to their injection to facilitate colorimetric evaluation of successful cell differentiation.
Aptamers for tracking immune cells
Cell-based Immunotherapies are proven to be effective for some diseases such as cancers. One type of immune cells that has gained remarkable attention in the field is the dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with immunostimulatory receptors which aid lymphocyte (T cell) activation. During exposure to infections, immature DCs uptake pathogens, degrade, and display their fragments to trigger further immune responses (also known as DC maturation events) [88, 89]. Exploiting these properties, DCs have been utilized to elicit and control immunoregulatory cell activity, especially in immune-related diseases [90, 91]. To achieve successful cell therapy however, injected DCs need to first migrate to the desired location and survive, before executing their intended cellular function [92, 93]. Furthermore, the process of cell therapy such as tuning of required cell number, injection frequency, and administration strategies can be optimized by continuous tracking [6, 94, 95]. Given their binding specificity and versatility, potential incorporation of aptamers tracking in DC-based therapy will be further discussed below.
SELEX can also be applied to identify aptamer sequences specific toward known DC ligands. As one example, an aptamer targeting intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-3) grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) ligand was selected with high affinity (Kd value 21.73 nmol/L) . DC-SIGN has been identified previously as an interesting ligand of DCs, as it allows pathogen binding to escape the immune response . Wengerter et al. have also selected aptamers that recognize DEC205, a C-type lectin which facilitates antigen cross-presentation and CD8+ T cell activation . By conjugating these aptamers with a reporting probe and allowing them to label DCs prior to their injection, the DCs localization can be tracked and evaluated.
Aside from DCs, aptamer applications for immune cells have also aimed at targeting T-cells. Several aptamers have been previously identified for known receptors on activated T cells, including the 4-1BB, OX40, and CTLA-4 receptors [100–102]. Interestingly when introduced in vivo as multivalent aptamer structures, the selected aptamers in all three studies were capable of stimulating further T-cell activities and inhibiting tumor growth. Applying similar aptamers but labeled with imaging moieties, subsequent labeling and tracking of the T-cell in vivo can elucidate the processes by which the T-cell resides and interferes with tumor growth.
Challenges and outlook
Challenges in aptamer biosensors
Strategies to enhance in vivo pharmacokinetics
- Formation of aptamer conjugates
- Aptamer chemical modifications
Loss of in vivo affinity for in vitro selected aptamers
- Direct in vivo aptamer selection
- Adjusting in vitro selection conditions to mimic closely in vivo conditions (e.g. pH, temp)
- Polyvalent aptamer conjugates
Cost of aptamer biosensors
- Minimizing aptamers length
- Utilize DNA-based aptamer
Safety of aptamer biosensors
- Complete pre-clinical studies
- Negative selection with closely related molecular targets
Strategies to enhance in vivo pharmacokinetics
Since aptamers are small oligonucleotides with average molecular weight between 10 to 15 kDa, they can be subject to rapid nuclease degradation and blood clearance, which significantly affect systemic delivery. Signals from the aptamers (even when bound to their target) can decay rapidly and are therefore not suited for prolonged in vivo longitudinal monitoring [103–106]. Meanwhile for some cell tracking applications, cells need to be monitored over an extended period of time, such as stem cell tracking following implantation. To uncover the biodistribution of these cells, the labeling may need to last a few hours. However to further monitor the growth and integration of the stem cells with host tissue, it might be required to track the stem cells for at least a few weeks [107, 108]. In this case, conventional unmodified aptamers would be unsuitable.
To enhance their pharmacokinetic properties, aptamers have previously been complexed with other entities like NPs. The relatively large size of these conjugates, coupled with the multivalent aptamers binding, facilitates faster accumulation at targeted cells and slower elimination from the circulation [109, 110]. Additionally, chemical modifications can be made to prolong the circulation half-life of aptamers. As an example, 40 kDa poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) molecules have been utilized on the commercially available Macugen aptamer which targets the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) . Modifying the backbone of the aptamers to incorporate protective groups such as 2’-fluoro, 2’-amino, or 2’-O-methyl can also help to improve nuclease resistance. Given that nucleases cause significant aptamer degradation, these protective groups can be utilized to prolong aptamer tracking/labeling window [112, 113]. With these chemical and physical modification tools already available, one can expect significant improvement in the longitudinal cell tracking properties of aptamers over the next few years.
Loss of in vivo affinity for in vitro selected aptamers
As aptamer target binding involves conformational change that is dependent on external conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, etc.), the great discrepancy between in vivo pathophysiological conditions and in vitro selection conditions poses a significant issue. The high affinity of the in vitro selected aptamers may be negated upon in vivo translations [114–116]. One possible solution is to perform the aptamer selection directly in vivo, although the complexity may results in the need for more selection rounds [117, 118]. However, in vitro-based selection might actually suffice, provided the extracellular conditions are adjusted to closely mimic the in vivo conditions [115, 119].
Additionally, conjugating several aptamers together to form multivalent aptamer structures have been shown to assist in vivo targeting efficiency [99, 100, 120]. In the study done by Wengerter et al., tetravalent DEC205-aptamer streptavidin (SA) conjugates and not monovalent aptamer-SA were observed to be uptaken by DEC205+ DCs in vivo. Furthermore when linked with OVA for T-cell cross presentation, only the tetravalent aptamer construct was capable of eliciting T cell proliferation . As an extension to the multivalency effect of one aptamer type, conjugating multiple aptamers that recognize different receptors/markers of the cells should also greatly enhance aptamer binding affinity. As shown recently, multiple aptamers cell labeling is very possible given that the aptamers do not inhibit each other’s binding .
Cost effectiveness of aptamer diagnostics
Another factor to be considered for the translation of aptamer biosensors is their cost. The unstable nature of RNA oligonucleotides which results in short shelf-life can significantly affect the manufacturing cost of aptamers . Furthermore, large-scale generation of long oligonucleotide sequences can be relatively difficult to achieve via solid-phase-synthesis approaches. Chemical modifications to their backbone also add to the cost of aptamer biosensors [123, 124]. Therefore, while recent synthesis technology advancements have helped to decrease costs, cell-SELEX with shorter sequences should be a viable alternative. Alternatively, sequence minimization can be done following the selection process, to eliminate non-critical regions [115, 125, 126]. In addition, noting that DNA aptamers are relatively more stable compared to RNA aptamers, DNA-based aptamers can be used with less chemical modifications [104, 127].
Safety of aptamer biosensors
While aptamers have been recognized to be low in immunogenicity compared to most protein-based probes or drugs, the safety aspect of aptamers remain to be carefully examined [128, 129]. Aptamer binding to non-target but similar molecules can trigger the activation of undesired signaling pathways thereby interfering with other aspects of cell status/function [104, 130]. Thus for future clinical translations, rigorous biocompatibility studies need to be performed. Pre-clinical cytotoxicity evaluation should be conducted on various cell types, and a wide variety of pre-clinical animal subjects. Especially when coupled with imaging moieties which can be cytotoxic, preclinical studies should be used to determine the threshold concentration of the aptamer biosensors, at which no adverse side-effects will occur . Concurrently, negative selection with closely related molecular targets should be included within the cell-SELEX process to reduce the potential for non-specific cross-binding .
Perspective: aptamers for cell tracking and assessment of status/functions
With the rapid expansion of cell-SELEX technology recently, it is conceivable that aptamer-based cell tracking will expand significantly in the next couple of years. Aside from the aspects of aptamers mentioned above that need improvement, extending the applications of aptamers in cell tracking can be vital. Applying the concept of aptamer cell tracking in cell therapy to reveal interactions experienced by the injected cells can shed significant light with regards to the therapeutic process. It is commonly known that cellular interactions play a major part in directing the fate of injected cells [132–134]. In the example above, surface-conjugated aptamers were utilized to study PDGF signaling experienced by MSCs . This can be extended to study the effect of various signaling molecules for both stem cells and immune cells therapy (e.g. tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), VEGF) [135, 136]. Additionally, aptamer has the potential to reveal direct cell-cell communication. By conjugating two aptamers recognizing different cell types for example, their interactions can be studied through aptamer signal dynamics. Ultimately with increased insight into post-transplantation interactions, cell therapy can be greatly optimized. Alternatively, aptamer tracking can be further applied to assist the validation of therapeutic cells in vitro. Stem cell culture typically undergoes a number of processing steps prior to usage that may consist of (1) separation from a heterogeneous population or (2) undergo cell transformation (i.e. differentiation) into a heterogeneous population. In contrast, a cell population that bears a (or multiple) homogenous therapeutically relevant biomarker is typically desired in therapy [137, 138]. The selectivity of aptamer-based cellular separation can be utilized to enhance the purity of the implanted cell population. Furthermore, quality assurance can also extend to the identification of undesirable stem cells that generate unwanted teratomas in vivo by using suitable aptamers.
Aptamer-based biosensors selected through cell-SELEX can bring significant improvements to in vivo cellular tracking. Aptamers with high binding affinities against specific cancer antigens can be conjugated with various imaging probes to trace the presence of a tumor mass for cancer diagnosis, or with anti-cancer drugs for targeted cancer treatment. In addition to revealing the cancer types based on the detected molecular signature, aptamers provide a means to monitor cancer cells in real time, towards a better understanding of various cancer behaviors. Ultimately, this will lead to greater efficiency in cancer treatment. Furthermore, for therapeutic cell applications, aptamer biosensors can facilitate the monitoring of cellular processes following implantation, while examining the bioactivities of therapeutic cells (e.g. cell differentiation, protein secretion, etc.) can facilitate the optimization process to achieve successful therapy.
Thus far, the reported usage of aptamer sensors for stem and immune cell tracking is still minimal. While many studies have been performed for diseased cancer cell detection and therapy, little emphasis has so far been placed on aptamers for injectable therapeutic cells. Utilizing the cell-SELEX approach however, it is conceivable that aptamer biosensors can be engineered to monitor the process of therapeutic cells specified above (e.g. maturation of DCs) of the therapeutic cells. As shown in previous examples, aptamers highly specific to mature DCs and MSCs have been selected and well applied for their subsequent isolation.
Additionally while limitations in aptamer probe usage remain, including the short circulation lifetime especially for RNA-based aptamer and the difficulty to chemically synthesize long oligonucleotides, these issues may not significantly hinder their implementation. As discussed in the previous section, various modification techniques have been proposed to alleviate these limitations. Modifications to the backbone of aptamers such as 2’-fluoro, 2’-ribo and 2’O-methyl RNA, have been shown to prolong their circulatory lifetime, while conducting cell-SELEX from a pool of short oligonucleotides facilitates simpler chemical synthesis.
In the long run, successful development of aptamer sensors can potentially be adapted into clinical applications and will assist the monitoring of diseased cells from the host body or externally introduced therapeutic cells. At the same time, the versatile nature of aptamer-based probes can be harnessed as well for targeted treatment in vivo, thereby realizing the notion of integrated theranostic agents.
This work is partially supported by the Tier-1 Academic Research Funds by Singapore Ministry of Education (RG 64/12 to CX).
- Daley GQ: The promise and perils of stem cell therapeutics. Cell Stem Cell. 2012, 10: 740-749.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lindvall O, Kokaia Z: Stem cells in human neurodegenerative disorders—time for clinical translation?. J Clin Invest. 2010, 120: 29-40.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reya T, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF, Weissman IL: Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells. Nature. 2001, 414: 105-111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wheeler DL, Dunn EF, Harari PM: Understanding resistance to EGFR inhibitors—impact on future treatment strategies. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2010, 7: 493-507.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mundy GR: Metastasis: Metastasis to bone: causes, consequences and therapeutic opportunities. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002, 2: 584-593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahrens ET, Bulte JW: Tracking immune cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013, 13: 755-763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bremer C, Ntziachristos V, Weissleder R: Optical-based molecular imaging: contrast agents and potential medical applications. Eur Radiol. 2003, 13: 231-243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sevick-Muraca EM, Houston JP, Gurfinkel M: Fluorescence-enhanced, near infrared diagnostic imaging with contrast agents. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2002, 6: 642-650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Antoch G, Freudenberg LS, Beyer T, Bockisch A, Debatin JF: To enhance or not to enhance? 18F-FDG and CT contrast agents in dual-modality 18F-FDG PET/CT. J Nucl Med. 2004, 45: 56S-65S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Delbeke D, Coleman RE, Guiberteau MJ, Brown ML, Royal HD, Siegel BA, Townsend DW, Berland LL, Parker JA, Hubner K: Procedure guideline for tumor imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT 1.0. J Nucl Med. 2006, 47: 885-895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu C, Tung GA, Sun S: Size and concentration effect of gold nanoparticles on X-ray attenuation as measured on computed tomography. Chem Mater. 2008, 20: 4167-4169.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caravan P, Ellison JJ, McMurry TJ, Lauffer RB: Gadolinium (III) chelates as MRI contrast agents: structure, dynamics, and applications. Chem Rev. 1999, 99: 2293-2352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Babes L, Denizot B, Tanguy G, Le Jeune JJ, Jallet P: Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles used as MRI contrast agents: a parametric study. J Colloid Interface Sci. 1999, 212: 474-482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gao X, Yang L, Petros JA, Marshall FF: In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2005, 16: 63-72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pi QM, Zhang WJ, Zhou GD, Liu W, Cao Y: Degradation or excretion of quantum dots in mouse embryonic stem cells. BMC Biotechnol. 2010, 10: 36-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gao Y, Cui Y, Chan JK, Xu C: Stem cell tracking with optically active nanoparticles. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013, 3: 232-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tuerk C, Gold L: Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. Science. 1990, 249: 505-510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ellington AD, Szostak JW: In vitro selection of RNA molecules that bind specific ligands. Nature. 1990, 346: 818-822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huizenga DE, Szostak JW: A DNA aptamer that binds adenosine and ATP. Biochemistry. 1995, 34: 656-665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Radi A-E, O'Sullivan CK: Aptamer conformational switch as sensitive electrochemical biosensor for potassium ion recognition. Chem Commun. 2006, 32: 3432-3434.Google Scholar
- Liu J, Lu Y: Fast colorimetric sensing of adenosine and cocaine based on a general sensor design involving aptamers and nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2006, 118: 96-100.Google Scholar
- Wei H, Li B, Li J, Wang E, Dong S: Simple and sensitive aptamer-based colorimetric sensing of protein using unmodified gold nanoparticle probes. Chem Commun. 2007, 36: 3735-3737.Google Scholar
- Huang C-C, Huang Y-F, Cao Z, Tan W, Chang H-T: Aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles for colorimetric determination of platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors. Anal Chem. 2005, 77: 5735-5741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Famulok M, Hartig JS, Mayer G: Functional aptamers and aptazymes in biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapy. Chem Rev. 2007, 107: 3715-3743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stojanovic MN, De Prada P, Landry DW: Aptamer-based folding fluorescent sensor for cocaine. J Am Chem Soc. 2001, 123: 4928-4931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liss M, Petersen B, Wolf H, Prohaska E: An aptamer-based quartz crystal protein biosensor. Anal Chem. 2002, 74: 4488-4495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McNamara JO, Andrechek ER, Wang Y, Viles KD, Rempel RE, Gilboa E, Sullenger BA, Giangrande PH: Cell type–specific delivery of siRNAs with aptamer-siRNA chimeras. Nat Biotechnol. 2006, 24: 1005-1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagalkot V, Zhang L, Levy-Nissenbaum E, Jon S, Kantoff PW, Langer R, Farokhzad OC: Quantum dot-aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Nano Lett. 2007, 7: 3065-3070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson C, Szostak JW: Isolation of a fluorophore-specific DNA aptamer with weak redox activity. Chem Biol. 1998, 5: 609-617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burmeister PE, Lewis SD, Silva RF, Preiss JR, Horwitz LR, Pendergrast PS, McCauley TG, Kurz JC, Epstein DM, Wilson C: Direct in vitro selection of a 2'-O-Methyl aptamer to VEGF. Chem Biol. 2005, 12: 25-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harding FA, Stickler MM, Razo J, DuBridge RB: The immunogenicity of humanized and fully human antibodies. Residual immunogenicity resides in the CDR regions. MAbs. 2010, 2: 256-265.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shigdar S, Lin J, Yu Y, Pastuovic M, Wei M, Duan W: RNA aptamer against a cancer stem cell marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule. Cancer Sci. 2011, 102: 991-998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ko HY, Lee JH, Kang H, Ryu SH, Song IC, Lee DS, Kim S: A nucleolin-targeted multimodal nanoparticle imaging probe for tracking cancer cells using an aptamer. J Nucl Med. 2010, 51: 98-105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang Z, Shangguan D, Wang K, Shi H, Sefah K, Mallikratchy P, Chen HW, Li Y, Tan W: Selection of aptamers for molecular recognition and characterization of cancer cells. Anal Chem. 2007, 79: 4900-4907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iwagawa T, Ohuchi SP, Watanabe S, Nakamura Y: Selection of RNA aptamers against mouse embryonic stem cells. Biochimie. 2012, 94: 250-257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meng L, Sefah K, Colon DL, Chen H, O’Donoghue M, Xiong X, Tan W: Using live cells to generate aptamers for cancer study. RNA Therapeutics. Volume 629. Edited by: Sioud M. 2010, Humana Press, 353-365. Methods in Molecular BiologyGoogle Scholar
- Fang X, Tan W: Aptamers generated from cell-SELEX for molecular medicine: a chemical biology approach. Acc Chem Res. 2009, 43: 48-57.Google Scholar
- Sefah K, Shangguan D, Xiong X, O'Donoghue MB, Tan W: Development of DNA aptamers using Cell-SELEX. Nat Protoc. 2010, 5: 1169-1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meyer S, Maufort JP, Nie J, Stewart R, McIntosh BE, Conti LR, Ahmad KM, Soh HT, Thomson JA: Development of an efficient targeted Cell-SELEX procedure for DNA aptamer reagents. PLoS One. 2013, 8: e71798-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shangguan D, Li Y, Tang Z, Cao ZC, Chen HW, Mallikaratchy P, Sefah K, Yang CJ, Tan W: Aptamers evolved from live cells as effective molecular probes for cancer study. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2006, 103: 11838-11843.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sefah K, Meng L, Lopez-Colon D, Jimenez E, Liu C, Tan W: DNA aptamers as molecular probes for colorectal cancer study. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e14269-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang AZ, Bagalkot V, Vasilliou CC, Gu F, Alexis F, Zhang L, Shaikh M, Yuet K, Cima MJ, Langer R: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle–aptamer bioconjugates for combined prostate cancer imaging and therapy. ChemMedChem. 2008, 3: 1311-1315.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Estévez MC, Huang Y-F, Kang H, O’Donoghue MB, Bamrungsap S, Yan J, Chen X, Tan W: Nanoparticle–aptamer conjugates for cancer cell targeting and detection. Cancer Nanotechnology.Volume 624. Edited by: Grobmyer SR, Moudgil BM. 2010, Humana Press, 235-248. Methods in Molecular BiologyGoogle Scholar
- Cerchia L, de Franciscis V: Targeting cancer cells with nucleic acid aptamers. Trends Biotechnol. 2010, 28: 517-525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zueva E, Rubio LI, Ducongé F, Tavitian B: Metastasis-focused cell-based SELEX generates aptamers inhibiting cell migration and invasion. Int J Cancer. 2011, 128: 797-804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coussens LM, Tinkle CL, Hanahan D, Werb Z: MMP-9 supplied by bone marrow–derived cells contributes to skin carcinogenesis. Cell. 2000, 103: 481-490.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee FY, Borzilleri R, Fairchild CR, Kim S-H, Long BH, Reventos-Suarez C, Vite GD, Rose WC, Kramer RA: BMS-247550 a novel epothilone analog with a mode of action similar to paclitaxel but possessing superior antitumor efficacy. Clin Cancer Res. 2001, 7: 1429-1437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- PLAXCO KW, Tom Soh H: Switch-based biosensors: a new approach towards real-time, in vivo molecular detection. Trends Biotechnol. 2011, 29: 1-5.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shi H, Tang Z, Kim Y, Nie H, Huang YF, He X, Deng K, Wang K, Tan W: In vivo fluorescence imaging of tumors using molecular aptamers generated by cell-SELEX. Cancer. 2010, 23: 24-Google Scholar
- Zhao W, Schafer S, Choi J, Yamanaka YJ, Lombardi ML, Bose S, Carlson AL, Phillips JA, Teo W, Droujinine IA: Cell-surface sensors for real-time probing of cellular environments. Nat Nanotechnol. 2011, 6: 524-531.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ntziachristos V, Ripoll J, Wang LV, Weissleder R: Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging. Nat Biotechnol. 2005, 23: 313-320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kedrin D, Gligorijevic B, Wyckoff J, Verkhusha VV, Condeelis J, Segall JE, van Rheenen J: Intravital imaging of metastatic behavior through a mammary imaging window. Nat Methods. 2008, 5: 1019-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alexander S, Koehl GE, Hirschberg M, Geissler EK, Friedl P: Dynamic imaging of cancer growth and invasion: a modified skin-fold chamber model. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008, 130: 1147-1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Savla R, Taratula O, Garbuzenko O, Minko T: Tumor targeted quantum dot-mucin 1 aptamer-doxorubicin conjugate for imaging and treatment of cancer. J Control Release. 2011, 153: 16-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shi H, He X, Wang K, Wu X, Ye X, Guo Q, Tan W, Qing Z, Yang X, Zhou B: Activatable aptamer probe for contrast-enhanced in vivo cancer imaging based on cell membrane protein-triggered conformation alteration. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2011, 108: 3900-3905.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kang WJ, Chae JR, Cho YL, Lee JD, Kim S: Multiplex imaging of single tumor cells using quantum-dot-conjugated aptamers. Small. 2009, 5: 2519-2522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Estévez M-C, Zhu Z, Huang Y-F, Chen Y, Wang L, Tan W: Using aptamer-conjugated fluorescence resonance energy transfer nanoparticles for multiplexed cancer cell monitoring. Anal Chem. 2009, 81: 7009-7014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Charlton J, Sennello J, Smith D: In vivo imaging of inflammation using an aptamer inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase. Chem Biol. 1997, 4: 809-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hicke BJ, Stephens AW, Gould T, Chang Y-F, Lynott CK, Heil J, Borkowski S, Hilger C-S, Cook G, Warren S: Tumor targeting by an aptamer. J Nucl Med. 2006, 47: 668-678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pieve C, Perkins A, Missailidis S: Anti-MUC1 aptamers: radiolabelling with (99m) Tc and biodistribution in MCF-7 tumour-bearing mice. Nucl Med Biol. 2009, 36: 703-710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rockey WM, Huang L, Kloepping KC, Baumhover NJ, Giangrande PH, Schultz MK: Synthesis and radiolabeling of chelator–RNA aptamer bioconjugates with copper-64 for targeted molecular imaging. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011, 19: 4080-4090.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hainfeld J, Slatkin D, Focella T, Smilowitz H: Gold nanoparticles: a new X-ray contrast agent. 2014Google Scholar
- Kim D, Park S, Lee JH, Jeong YY, Jon S: Antibiofouling polymer-coated gold nanoparticles as a contrast agent for in vivo X-ray computed tomography imaging. J Am Chem Soc. 2007, 129: 7661-7665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim D, Jeong YY, Jon S: A drug-loaded aptamer- gold nanoparticle bioconjugate for combined CT imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. ACS Nano. 2010, 4: 3689-3696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jalalian SH, Taghdisi SM, Shahidi Hamedani N, Kalat SAM, Lavaee P, ZandKarimi M, Ghows N, Jaafari MR, Naghibi S, Danesh NM: Epirubicin loaded super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugate for combined colon cancer therapy and imaging in vivo. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013, 50: 191-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chi-hong BC, Dellamaggiore KR, Ouellette CP, Sedano CD, Lizadjohry M, Chernis GA, Gonzales M, Baltasar FE, Fan AL, Myerowitz R: Aptamer-based endocytosis of a lysosomal enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2008, 105: 15908-15913.Google Scholar
- Li N, Larson T, Nguyen HH, Sokolov KV, Ellington AD: Directed evolution of gold nanoparticle delivery to cells. Chem Commun. 2010, 46: 392-394.Google Scholar
- Meyer C, Eydeler K, Magbanua E, Zivkovic T, Piganeau N, Lorenzen I, Grötzinger J, Mayer G, Rose-John S, Hahn U: Interleukin-6 receptor specific RNA aptamers for cargo delivery into target cells. RNA Biol. 2012, 9: 67-80.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiao Z, Shangguan D, Cao Z, Fang X, Tan W: Cell-specific internalization study of an aptamer from whole cell selection. Chem-A Eur J. 2008, 14: 1769-1775.Google Scholar
- Nicholson R, Gee J, Harper M: EGFR and cancer prognosis. Eur J Cancer. 2001, 37: 9-15.Google Scholar
- Kruspe S, Meyer C, Hahn U: Chlorin e6 conjugated interleukin-6 receptor aptamers selectively kill target cells upon irradiation. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2014, 3: e143-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang YF, Shangguan D, Liu H, Phillips JA, Zhang X, Chen Y, Tan W: Molecular assembly of an aptamer–drug conjugate for targeted drug delivery to tumor cells. ChemBioChem. 2009, 10: 862-868.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caplan AI: Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine. J Cell Physiol. 2007, 213: 341-347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Griffith LG, Naughton G: Tissue engineering–current challenges and expanding opportunities. Science. 2002, 295: 1009-1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bianco P, Robey PG: Stem cells in tissue engineering. Nature. 2001, 414: 118-121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phinney DG, Prockop DJ: Concise review: mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells: the state of transdifferentiation and modes of tissue repair—current views. Stem Cells. 2007, 25: 2896-2902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aggarwal S, Pittenger MF: Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses. Blood. 2005, 105: 1815-1822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ringdén O, Uzunel M, Rasmusson I, Remberger M, Sundberg B, Lönnies H, Marschall H-U, Dlugosz A, Szakos A, Hassan Z: Mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of therapy-resistant graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation. 2006, 81: 1390-1397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ryan JM, Barry FP, Murphy JM, Mahon BP: Mesenchymal stem cells avoid allogeneic rejection. J Inflamm. 2005, 2: 8-Google Scholar
- Zhu Y, Sun Z, Han Q, Liao L, Wang J, Bian C, Li J, Yan X, Liu Y, Shao C: Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit cancer cell proliferation by secreting DKK-1. Leukemia. 2009, 23: 925-933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramasamy R, Lam EW, Soeiro I, Tisato V, Bonnet D, Dazzi F: Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells: impact on in vivo tumor growth. Leukemia. 2006, 21: 304-310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guo KT, SchÄfer R, Paul A, Gerber A, Ziemer G, Wendel HP: A new technique for the isolation and surface immobilization of mesenchymal stem cells from whole bone marrow using high-specific DNA aptamers. Stem Cells. 2006, 24: 2220-2231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schäfer R, Wiskirchen J, Guo K, Neumann B, Kehlbach R, Pintaske J, Voth V, Walker T, Scheule A, Greiner T: Aptamer-based isolation and subsequent imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in ischemic myocard by magnetic resonance imaging. RöFo-Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Röntgenstrahlen und der bildgebenden Verfahren. 2007, New York: © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, 1009-1015.Google Scholar
- Ponte AL, Marais E, Gallay N, Langonne A, Delorme B, Herault O, Charbord P, Domenech J: The in vitro migration capacity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: comparison of chemokine and growth factor chemotactic activities. Stem Cells. 2007, 25: 1737-1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ball SG, Shuttleworth CA, Kielty CM: Mesenchymal stem cells and neovascularization: role of platelet-derived growth factor receptors. J Cell Mol Med. 2007, 11: 1012-1030.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vicens MC, Sen A, Vanderlaan A, Drake TJ, Tan W: Investigation of molecular beacon aptamer-based bioassay for platelet-derived growth factor detection. ChemBioChem. 2005, 6: 900-907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fang X, Sen A, Vicens M, Tan W: Synthetic DNA aptamers to detect protein molecular variants in a high-throughput fluorescence quenching assay. ChemBioChem. 2003, 4: 829-834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mellman I, Steinman RM: Dendritic cells-specialized and regulated antigen processing machines. Cell. 2001, 106: 255-258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cella M, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A: Origin, maturation and antigen presenting function of dendritic cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 1997, 9: 10-16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Banchereau J, Steinman RM: Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature. 1998, 392: 245-252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fong L, Engleman EG: Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy. Annu Rev Immunol. 2000, 18: 245-273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Figdor CG, de Vries IJM, Lesterhuis WJ, Melief CJ: Dendritic cell immunotherapy: mapping the way. Nat Med. 2004, 10: 475-480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lutz MB, Schuler G: Immature, semi-mature and fully mature dendritic cells: which signals induce tolerance or immunity?. Trends Immunol. 2002, 23: 445-449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Horan PK, Melnicoff MJ, Jensen BD, Slezak SE: Fluorescent cell labeling for in vivo and in vitro cell tracking. Methods Cell Biol. 1990, 33: 469-490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edinger M, Cao Y-A, Verneris MR, Bachmann MH, Contag CH, Negrin RS: Revealing lymphoma growth and the efficacy of immune cell therapies using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Blood. 2003, 101: 640-648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berezovski MV, Lechmann M, Musheev MU, Mak TW, Krylov SN: Aptamer-facilitated biomarker discovery (AptaBiD). J Am Chem Soc. 2008, 130: 9137-9143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hui Y, Shan L, Lin-fu Z, Jian-hua Z: Selection of DNA aptamers against DC-SIGN protein. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007, 306: 71-77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek TB: DC-SIGN: escape mechanism for pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003, 3: 697-709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wengerter BC, Katakowski JA, Rosenberg JM, Park CG, Almo SC, Palliser D, Levy M: Aptamer-targeted antigen delivery. Mol Ther. 2014, 22 (7): 1375-1387.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McNamara JO, Kolonias D, Pastor F, Mittler RS, Chen L, Giangrande PH, Sullenger B, Gilboa E: Multivalent 4-1BB binding aptamers costimulate CD8+ T cells and inhibit tumor growth in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008, 118: 376-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dollins CM, Nair S, Boczkowski D, Lee J, Layzer JM, Gilboa E, Sullenger BA: Assembling OX40 aptamers on a molecular scaffold to create a receptor-activating aptamer. Chem Biol. 2008, 15: 675-682.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santulli-Marotto S, Nair SK, Rusconi C, Sullenger B, Gilboa E: Multivalent RNA aptamers that inhibit CTLA-4 and enhance tumor immunity. Cancer Res. 2003, 63: 7483-7489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Syed MA, Pervaiz S: Advances in aptamers. Oligonucleotides. 2010, 20: 215-224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keefe AD, Pai S, Ellington A: Aptamers as therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2010, 9: 537-550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pestourie C, Tavitian B, Duconge F: Aptamers against extracellular targets for in vivo applications. Biochimie. 2005, 87: 921-930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Younes C, Boisgard R, Tavitian B: Labelled oligonucleotides as radiopharmaceuticals: pitfalls, problems and perspectives. Curr Pharm Des. 2002, 8: 1451-1466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nam SY, Ricles LM, Suggs LJ, Emelianov SY: In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e37267-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Cao F, De A, Cao Y, Contag C, Gambhir SS, Wu JC, Chen X: Trafficking mesenchymal stem cell engraftment and differentiation in tumor-bearing mice by bioluminescence imaging. Stem Cells. 2009, 27: 1548-1558.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wullner U, Neef I, Eller A, Kleines M, Tur MK, Barth S: Cell-specific induction of apoptosis by rationally designed bivalent aptamer-siRNA transcripts silencing eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2008, 8: 554-565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chu TC, Twu KY, Ellington AD, Levy M: Aptamer mediated siRNA delivery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006, 34: e73-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tucker CE, Chen L-S, Judkins MB, Farmer JA, Gill SC, Drolet DW: Detection and plasma pharmacokinetics of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor oligonucleotide-aptamer (NX1838) in rhesus monkeys. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999, 732: 203-212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keefe AD, Cload ST: SELEX with modified nucleotides. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2008, 12: 448-456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Famulok M, Mayer G, Blind M: Nucleic acid aptamers from selection in vitro to applications in vivo. Acc Chem Res. 2000, 33: 591-599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shangguan D, Cao ZC, Li Y, Tan W: Aptamers evolved from cultured cancer cells reveal molecular differences of cancer cells in patient samples. Clin Chem. 2007, 53: 1153-1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiao Z, Farokhzad OC: Aptamer-functionalized nanoparticles for medical applications: challenges and opportunities. ACS Nano. 2012, 6: 3670-3676.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt KS, Borkowski S, Kurreck J, Stephens AW, Bald R, Hecht M, Friebe M, Dinkelborg L, Erdmann VA: Application of locked nucleic acids to improve aptamer in vivo stability and targeting function. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32: 5757-5765.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mi J, Liu Y, Rabbani ZN, Yang Z, Urban JH, Sullenger BA, Clary BM: In vivo selection of tumor-targeting RNA motifs. Nat Chem Biol. 2010, 6: 22-24.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheng C, Chen YH, Lennox KA, Behlke MA, Davidson BL: In vivo SELEX for Identification of Brain-penetrating Aptamers. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2013, 2: e67-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cerchia L, Ducongé F, Pestourie C, Boulay J, Aissouni Y, Gombert K, Tavitian B, de Franciscis V, Libri D: Neutralizing aptamers from whole-cell SELEX inhibit the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. PLoS Biol. 2005, 3: e123-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoo H, Jung H, Kim SA, Mok H: Multivalent comb-type aptamer–siRNA conjugates for efficient and selective intracellular delivery. Chem Commun. 2014, 50: 6765-6767.Google Scholar
- Li W-M, Bing T, Wei J-Y, Chen Z-Z, Shangguan D-H, Fang J: Cell-SELEX-based selection of aptamers that recognize distinct targets on metastatic colorectal cancer cells. Biomaterials. 2014, 35: 6998-7007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Sullivan CK: Aptasensors–the future of biosensing?. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2002, 372: 44-48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- El-Sagheer AH, Brown T: New strategy for the synthesis of chemically modified RNA constructs exemplified by hairpin and hammerhead ribozymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010, 107: 15329-15334.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brody EN, Gold L: Aptamers as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Rev Mol Biotechnol. 2000, 74: 5-13.Google Scholar
- Vater A, Jarosch F, Buchner K, Klussmann S: Short bioactive Spiegelmers to migraine-associated calcitonin gene-related peptide rapidly identified by a novel approach: Tailored-SELEX. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31: e130-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Porciani D, Signore G, Marchetti L, Mereghetti P, Nifosì R, Beltram F: Two interconvertible folds modulate the activity of a DNA aptamer against transferrin receptor. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2014, 3: e144-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- White RR, Sullenger BA, Rusconi CP: Developing aptamers into therapeutics. J Clin Investig. 2000, 106: 929-934.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou J, Rossi JJ: Aptamer-targeted cell-specific RNA interference. Silence. 2010, 1: 4-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bouchard P, Hutabarat R, Thompson K: Discovery and development of therapeutic aptamers. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010, 50: 237-257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou J, Rossi JJ: Cell-type-specific, aptamer-functionalized agents for targeted disease therapy. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2014, 3: e169-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- White RR, Shan S, Rusconi CP, Shetty G, Dewhirst MW, Kontos CD, Sullenger BA: Inhibition of rat corneal angiogenesis by a nuclease-resistant RNA aptamer specific for angiopoietin-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2003, 100: 5028-5033.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Leker RR, Soldner F, Hoeppner DJ, Ravin R, Poser SW, Rueger MA, Bae S-K, Kittappa R, McKay RD: Notch signalling regulates stem cell numbers in vitro and in vivo. Nature. 2006, 442: 823-826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heissig B, Hattori K, Dias S, Friedrich M, Ferris B, Hackett NR, Crystal RG, Besmer P, Lyden D, Moore MA: Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand. Cell. 2002, 109: 625-637.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gnecchi M, Zhang Z, Ni A, Dzau VJ: Paracrine mechanisms in adult stem cell signaling and therapy. Circ Res. 2008, 103: 1204-1219.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crisostomo PR, Wang Y, Markel TA, Wang M, Lahm T, Meldrum DR: Human mesenchymal stem cells stimulated by TNF-α, LPS, or hypoxia produce growth factors by an NFκB-but not JNK-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008, 294: C675-C682.Google Scholar
- Gabrilovich DI, Chen HL, Girgis KR, Cunningham HT, Meny GM, Nadaf S, Kavanaugh D, Carbone DP: Production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human tumors inhibits the functional maturation of dendritic cells. Nat Med. 1996, 2: 1096-1103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee AS, Tang C, Rao MS, Weissman IL, Wu JC: Tumorigenicity as a clinical hurdle for pluripotent stem cell therapies. Nat Med. 2013, 19: 998-1004.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phinney DG: Functional heterogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells: implications for cell therapy. J Cell Biochem. 2012, 113: 2806-2812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.